Acing the Final Interviewing Hurdle!

These days, no one gets appointed to a job after one interview… matter how senior or junior the role, there is a process to follow.

Meet the line manager, meet the other ‘dotted’ reporting lines in the matrix, meet the other members of the management team (peers), meet the direct reports, meet the representatives from the divisions where there will be interaction, and then (just when you think it’s all over)…. meet a few other interested stakeholders.

Then after everyone agrees that the candidate is perfectly suitable, there is some form of psychometric assessment (these can range from a quickie online, to several days of high pressure testing). And then, if the candidate miraculously manages to pass through all of this, sometimes a final test awaits……the Panel Presentation!

The presentation topic is sent to the candidate at least a few days prior to the interview so that one can do some research and prepare ‘at leisure’. Don’t be lulled into believing that this is going to be a walk in the park, because it’s at this final phase of the interviewing process that candidates actually prove themselves truly worthy…..or not!

After some analysis of the success and failures, I can provide some pointers to candidates facing this final hurdle:

  1. It’s NOT about how great a presenter you are (although a crash course at Dale Carnegie won’t do any harm)
  2. It’s NOT about how brilliant the content is (but you will need to be above average, at least)
  3. It IS about your confidence and ease in an often stressful situation (we recently had finalist candidates be required to present to a full Board of 15 people).
  4. It IS about demonstrating your strategic thought process and ability to think on your feet.
  5. And it DEFINITELY IS about doing your research on the company, its philosophy or mission, its people, products, competitors, etc. Even if the presentation does not require you to engage on these topics, NOT knowing enough about the company could be the ultimate deciding factor.

Now go ace that final interview!



Are you losing your cache in attracting talent?

With over 20 years in the executive search business we have seen many shifts and trends in how companies are perceived by the talent they look to attract. None is more concerning than the loss of cache that seems to be occurring with some of the biggest names across many industries.


The reasons can be quite varied ranging from loss of leadership positioning due to more intense competition; poor stock or management performance reports; stigma by association to industries that have undergone reputational loss; lacking focus on innovation; seeming to be mired in old ways of doing things; high turnover that gives a “churn and burn” impression – and one that we are seeing more and more –  constant reorganizations that, while done for the right business reasons, are not well communicated and give the external impression that things are not stable.

A look at some of the top names in their respective industries on is startling in that it reveals that the ratings for employee satisfaction are quite poor – and the reasons for the low ratings are often tied to constant restructuring.  “It’s OK” seems to have become the new acceptable standard for employee satisfaction. If that’s the best that the people working for the company can say about it, why would a high quality prospect be interested in joining the company?

We’ve seen an increasing challenge in attracting executive talent to top tier companies and have had to put much greater emphasis on selling the opportunities and dispelling the misconceptions prospects may have than was previously the case – the brand often no longer holds the same appeal that it did in the past. Often top tier companies have lost sight of how their employer brand is perceived in the market and are surprised that the calibre of people they want are not clamouring for their job.

One client that recently engaged us to find them a VP of Marketing was surprised that they had to engage an executive search firm as they felt they had a marketer’s dream job on offer. They had posted the assignment on multiple industry sites and, while receiving hundreds of applications, did not deem any of them worth an interview. They were attracting lots of people but not of the quality they were looking for. When we reached out and spoke to senior marketers the initial response was lukewarm. The market perception was that the company had gone through so many reorganizations that it was seen as no longer being a stable place to work. The question back to us was – why should I consider moving from a company where I am challenged and valued to a situation I see as risky? This was only aggravated by the “cattle call” approach the client previously took to looking for this senior executive. While we were happy to get the assignment, our work was certainly made harder by these circumstances.

We’re seeing this more and more – companies that are still trading strictly on their market dominance and not realizing that they have lost their cache as an employer. They continue to approach talent acquisition from the perspective of a “buyer” and an attitude that everyone would want to work here.  That’s why they are so frequently surprised that they are not attracting the caliber of talent they want when they go to market directly. Attracting top talent is a sales process from end to end and requires presenting a compelling story, often correcting market perceptions, about the company and the opportunity.

Is there such a thing as an Executive Bargain?

So….you’ve been looking for someone to fill a key role for months. Your budget is tight, but you’ve been holding out for Mr or Mrs Right  – the perfect candidate with the perfect experience, but someone who would be willing to accept the role for a bit (maybe a lot) less than what they’re earning now. Which is a reasonable expectation, because after all, there will be some great opportunities for long term wealth creation in the future, if the market turns and the company finally starts to show a profit – right????

And then it all happens….a great candidate comes along – excellent experience, super talent, will really add loads of value, and BEST of all – they’re willing to accept your package offer (which is significantly less than what they were ideally looking for))!! Amazing, right????

No –  wrong! wrong! wrong!

In the real world, unless there are some truly compelling wealth creation or career development opportunities on offer, when a seemingly great candidate is willing to take such a significant drop in package, you should be asking some serious questions.

Very possibly, the candidate really IS excellent, and for some reason or another is in a financial situation where he/ she is willing to accept a job that is paying substantially less than their previous one. The danger in this scenario is that this is most likely to be an interim stop-gap, allowing the individual to earn a salary whilst continuing to look for a job that offers a package more in line with their ideal expectations. A quality executive, no matter what the immediate circumstances are, knows their true worth and will not make a long term commitment to a company that does not recognize it.  Is there any real economy in spending the time and money to bring someone in, integrate them into your business, and have them leave within a year?

So if it feels a bit too good to be true, and you think you’ve just signed on the ‘bargain’ of the year….think again.

And I’d say, if it works out for the long term, congratulations! But then, I’ve never actually seen that happen.

Global Executive Placement Trends….turning away at the altar!

One would think that in a time of tough-ish, tight-ish global markets, where GREAT executive positions with fantastic companies, excellent prospects, and wonderful career challenges are not exactly hanging on trees, that executive candidates would be lining up, desperate to sign on the dotted line when a really GOOD opportunity arises.

Well, think again!

It seems that while high level candidates are as willing as ever to play the dating game, and invest time and energy in the courting process, when it comes to actually taking the plunge and accepting a job offer, execs are  often taking an approach of ‘better the devil you know’, and remaining with their current employer.

WHY is this happening, you ask????

It seems that the impact of the ongoing (it’s been 5 years or so, now) tough-ish, tight-ish global markets is a high level of fear and uncertainty amongst those who have the most to lose by making the wrong career move – senior managers, directors and other C-suite professionals.

And considering that most top players are in senior roles at the time of engaging with a new prospective employer – ie. they have jobs! – when it comes down the wire, they are often either accepting counteroffers, or outright declining a new offer, more frequently than has happened in the relatively recent past.

Interestingly, it became evident at a recent IRC Global Executive Search Partners conference, that this trend is not limited to Canada – it’s global!

More importantly, though, is what we and our corporate clients can do to deal with this trend, and ensure the successful conclusion of top appointments?

The following will go a LONG way to reversing the trend:

  1. Make a GREAT offer – not just a marginal one!
  2. Ensure that the interview process is thorough, but also swift, seamless and faultlessly executed.
  3. Keep ‘selling’ the opportunity – this is not the time to be expecting headhunted candidates to tell you why they so desperately want to work for your company.
  4. Go the extra mile – invest in the process personally, and do not outsource the final stages to administrators alone.


With these strategies to counter the counter, we’ll win this battle together!

How to Avoid Executive Hiring Mistakes


Let’s face it – making the wrong appointment at any level is costly and frustrating. But at a senior management or executive level, the wrong person in the wrong job in the wrong company is just….well….VERY wrong!

Which everyone realizes, hence the laborious rounds of interviews, the psychometric assessments, the risk profiling, the reference checking, etc, in order to avoid expensive and potentially destructive mistakes.

The reality is – none of the above is a perfect tool for successful hiring. Of course, we know that both interviewing and reference checking are relatively subjective activities. And psychometric assessments….well, the companies that sell these would have us believe that their assessments can provide scientific answers about potential hires. But let’s think about it – if this was possible, there would never be any issues with under-performance, poor fit or lack of management and leadership skills.

So the bottom line is, there will always be a measure of risk when you take on a new hire. Here are some tips on how to minimise these risks as much as possible.

  1. Accept that there are NO PERFECT PEOPLE

Once you’ve stopped looking for the holy grail, you can manage your expectations. Because one of the biggest risks to a successful appointment is the gap between the wish list and the real thing (a live human being with imperfections that will require a measure of compromise).

  1. Look for patterns in performance, both good and bad

By the time a professional reaches senior management, he has usually had a few jobs in a few companies – so he’s moved about a bit. Which is a good thing, because you can then ask him the golden question – why did you leave? Ask this question for each career move or role change, and you’ll start to see some interesting and insightful patterns. You’ll spot the people who chase money, who leave on good or bad terms with their previous bosses/ companies, who have ‘issues’ or success stories. And when the answers don’t add up, there’s probably something fishy. So keep asking until you’re satisfied. Because the greatest chance of future success is determined by past success.

  1. Let candidates talk

Particularly when you’re not entirely sure. My strategy is to give candidates ‘enough rope…’ so to speak – and then wait for clarity to reveal itself. Which it will, if you have a bit of patience and time.

  1. Don’t be intimidated by great CV’s

I can’t recall the number of times in my very early career when I would be ‘impressed’ by a candidate prior to even entering the interview room. For some reason or another – usually their seniority, the amount of money they made, the prestigious companies they’d worked for, etc. And this would result in me NOT asking all the questions, NOT getting into the substance, and accepting weak or general answers instead of pushing hard for detail and specifics.

  1. Make sure that the appointment will be MUTUALLY beneficial

The key to a successful appointment is when both parties – the employer and the candidate – can see what’s in it for them, respectively. If you start wondering why the candidate is keen on the role (it’s a sideways move at best, the package upside is not going to be all that competitive, the challenges and growth may be limited, the demands of travel are going to be excessive, etc), you should be on the high alert for an appointment that will be short-lived. So the fact that a candidate may be able to ‘hit the ground running’ may not be as brilliant as you think….in the long term.

I hope you get some value out of these tips and that you never make a hiring mistake – ever!

How to know when it’s time to go

Has your career reached an impasse…. is it time to make a change?  5 sure-fire indicators that it’s time to go.

  1. You are no longer learning or developing new skills.

Think back to when you started your current job and the excitement of the initial learning and the subsequent development of the skills that allowed you to excel in the role. Too often companies are reticent to move someone out of a job that they are doing really well because of the gap that it will create and the investment they will need to make in getting someone else up to speed.  Your career progression should not be stalled because you are doing the job well. If you know that you are capable of more and are not getting the opportunity in your current company, it is time to look elsewhere. New growth and satisfaction can come from applying your developed skill set to a new industry as well as from moving into an entirely different position.

  1. You are no longer challenged – there is no “stretch” in your role.shutterstock_149394278

One of the most satisfying things in working is to have a goal that is somewhat outside of your comfort zone and achieving it. An ambitious business person is much like an athlete, constantly looking to overcome the next test or challenge – it’s where you get your rush! If your job has become mind numbingly routine and your company does not provide the opportunity to work on some meaningful and challenging projects – it’s time to look for new challenges elsewhere.

When interviewing with other companies, asking about the opportunity to work on projects outside of the scope of the specific job should be a part of the discussion and your decision to join them. If working there would be just as limiting, you likely will not be happy there for long.

  1. You feel that you are not compensated at the appropriate level.

Here you have to do your homework and get a real pulse on what similar roles are paying in other companies and industries. Compensation and growth opportunities for similar roles can be very different. Sometimes this is impacted by the value of the role within a given company or industry. For example a Director of Digital Marketing role with an accounting firm may not pay as well as it does in a digital marketing firm, where it is their core business.

A great way to keep on top of compensation levels is to have ongoing interaction with recruiters – even when you are not in the market for a job. By responding to recruiter calls you are not only building a relationship for the future, you are getting a read of what the market is paying for your skills. Once you have a relatively good fix on the going rates and can confirm that you are not adequately compensated, it’s time to make your move.

  1. The company, industry, or your life has changed, and no longer meets your needs.

A significant drop in an industry is a pretty direct reason to make a change but sometimes you can also just lose your passion for an industry as well. A more subtle reason though can come with the shifting culture of the company no longer being a good fit for you. This could be influenced by senior management changes, too fast or too slow growth, more intense competition revealing the ugly underbelly of the company, and many other factors. Whatever the reason for the cultural shift, if you don’t feel you fit in any longer, it’s time to go. Similarly, if you find that your company is completely inflexible when your life changes, with family needs added to your responsibilities, and consistently expects you to put your job before all personal and family commitments, it’s time to find a more adaptive work environment.

  1. You are approached with a better offer/opportunity

Chances are that if you are a professional doing a great job, someone will notice. Sometimes the ones to take notice are not your current employer. Although you were not looking for a new opportunity, it begs the question – why hasn’t your company taken appropriate notice and rewarded your contribution? You like the job on offer and see future potential with the suitor company. Unless there are some other really compelling factors that would keep you at the current company, it is in your best interest to take the offer and advance your career.


The Benefit of Boutique Firms

IRC 2013IRC Annual Conference 2013 – San Francisco

Simply put, boutique firms offer a competitive advantage to their client companies.  Starting with the breadth of companies from which they can recruit from (based on conflict of interest issues at larger firms) and ending with not having to placate stock holders if they are a public company.  It is my belief that client companies want to make sure that their interests are paramount and not have to worry about search firms trying to serve their own shareholders’ needs to the detriment of the client

I’m delighted to join the Top Gun Ventures team,” said Brian Adamik. “What makes this opportunity most exciting is our ability to capitalize on the fact that the current executive search model is broken. Most of the large search firms today are faced with significant client “off-limits” issues, internal battles over account control, and an over-reliance on their databases of names that deliver the same candidates over and over again. Furthermore, given the number of searches that each consultant handles, large search firms today are simply not able to provide the level of client intimacy necessary to understand customer needs, nor the culture of the organizations they serve. The end result of this is that it takes far too long to fill the role and the placement is not always successful.”

“The Top Gun Ventures model is different,” said Adamik. “We conduct fewer searches at any specific time and we make it our business to understand our client, their culture, and the goals of the position we are recruiting for. We focus on conducting original research on every search we carry out which yields candidates who are top performing executives not actively looking for their next leadership position. Further, we have virtually no off-limits issues; our partners manage all aspects of the search including research, prospect calling, and candidate development; and our precision recruiting techniques allow us to attract the right executive the first time. In fact, we provide a 100% guarantee that our recruited candidate will achieve the strategic goals for which they were hired.”

The executive search industry can be divided into two camps.  On one extreme are a handful of mega-firms, some of them publicly-held, with big brand names and revenues in excess of $500M per year.  These large firms typically cater to Fortune 500 clientele. You may think it sounds prestigious to say “we’re using a big name firm”, but unless you’re a Fortune 500 company, your search can get very expensive, lost in the shuffle, and they will ultimately recruit from you after their hands-off time has expired.

On the other are a multitude of boutiques, most of which specialize by industry and/or function. We believe strongly that most client companies get better results by partnering with the right boutique.  Here’s why:

Is What You See, What You Get?

When you engage a boutique, you are dealing directly with the person who will work on your project.  In contrast, at big search firms, the search may be directed by a “Partner” but in fact a significant amount of the work is done by less tenured associates…people you have never met, and who have minimal knowledge of your company, your business challenges, and your goals. The results? Candidates who match the letter — not the spirit — of the job description; mis-hires who don’t fit your corporate culture; and poor performance down the road.

Access to More Candidates

Executive search firms have an ethical (and usually contractual) obligation not to recruit from clients.  Big search firms have significant off-limits constraints, which limits the pool of candidates while boutiques can access more candidates because they have fewer off-limits companies.   In addition, a little known fact is that candidates that are active on a search within a firm are also off-limits for any other search projects.  Large firms can have literally thousands of active candidates throughout the firm at any one time…all who are unavailable for your search!

Smaller Work Load

A typical search firm partner may conduct 15 to 20 assignments simultaneously, overwhelming their associates and research staff. They operate in a “book ‘em, bill ‘em & forget ‘em” environment. Unless your search is carrying the highest fees or is relatively easy to complete, it may be shunted to the bottom of the heap.  In contrast, boutiques typically work on fewer projects, devoting far more time and attention to each one.

Higher Completion Rates

Boutiques have higher completion rates than big firms.  Completion rates at big search firms are well-known to be in the 60% to 65% range.

In-Depth Knowledge of Your Company

Because boutiques have a business model that enables them to form a genuine partnership with you, they are usually better at selling your opportunity and assessing candidates. Combining its access to talent with its proven Performance Based Assessment SM methodology,

Exactly What is Their Process?

Many search firms operate on a “don’t ask, don’t tell” basis, convincing companies that the search process is mysterious and incomprehensible. The reality is, most big firm partners cannot explain their process, nor do they adhere to a proven methodology.

Big Fish…Small Pond

If your company plans to do more than ten searches a year, you may have enough leverage to get the attention you deserve from the big search firms.  But if your needs for search are more focused, you will get far more personalized and attentive service from a boutique.

In summary

Bigger is not better in executive search.  In fact, big search firms face significant obstacles to client service.  Large scale makes it easier for search firms to build their brands, but does not provide value to clients.

It’s important to remember that search firms are service providers. When evaluating vendors, look past the false allure of name brands and critically evaluate the quality of service you will receive. Determine the firm’s commitment to your company, assess its process yourself whether this search firm is passionate about serving your company’s needs and providing what you and your company want.

How to turn off a headhunted candidate

In the last while I’ve had some interesting feedback from candidates after their first, second, third (or in some cases sixth or seventh) interview with a prospective new employer…..along with a bit of a moan from them about ‘stuff’.

The ‘stuff’ includes such petrifying experiences as being kept waiting in the reception area before being seated in a meeting room – headhunted candidates are usually VERY concerned about confidentiality, as they should be, and it is potentially career limiting to be seen by someone you know in the lobby. Try as you will, there is no mistaking the pre-interview ‘aura’ – any alert person can pick this up – and so paranoia about waiting out in the open is a pretty valid emotion!

shutterstock_122625739Being kept waiting beyond the appointed interview time is one of the biggest pet peeves of headhunted candidates. They are business people that made the effort to be there on time and keeping them waiting sends the signal that your time is more important than theirs. And even more irritating is being blasé about having kept them waiting.

Then, there is the ‘read the CV’ grumble! By the time the headhunted candidate is on to their second or third interview with (usually) various individuals from the executive team, he/she has an expectation that a) they will have read their CV, and b) they will have conferred amongst themselves regarding which questions have been asked and answered so that the same slew of questions and answers are not repeated in each meeting. A pretty reasonable expectation, one would think?

Another little aggravation is the inevitable interview question ‘So why do you want to leave your current company?’. This particular question may seem completely innocuous and without any malicious or negative intent…but if there’s one thing that gets the headhunted candidate’s blood to boil, it’s this one! And assuming that everyone in the room (and on the interviewing panel) knows that the candidate has, in fact, been approached by an executive search firm (yours truly), this would also seem understandably annoying.

So here’s the thing – companies spend LOTS of money, time and effort trying to woo top people to their organisations. They strategise, they plan, they commit the time of their executive team to the interview process, they utilize the services of the best headhunters around to bring the best talent to them. And then ‘stuff’ happens in the interviewing process that turns the candidates from interested to off!

Of course, savvy companies have the interview process so waxed that headhunted candidates can’t wait to sign on the dotted line.

Is the executive bonus system botched?  

The executive bonus has become a somewhat controversial topic in recent years and, in some countries, even the rallying cry for those wanting to apportion blame for the causes of the Global Financial Crisis. Perhaps it is no coincidence that 2007, the year the economy began its decline, was a record year for executive bonuses.

However it is not just the ‘Wall Street investment banker’ who is the recipient of remuneration outside the traditional salary payments. Most executives today receive some form of bonus remuneration as part of their total compensation. Often it includes both a cash payout and a substantial stock award.

shutterstock_149304473The original objective of the bonus system was as a means of incentivizing performance by motivating excellence in terms of employee output. However, increasingly bonuses are associated with motivating other than excellence – the reward itself has become the motivation.

At best many would argue that bonuses seem to be delivered merely for ‘turning up’ rather than for delivering excellence. A great example is the many top executives who were fired for lack of performance that were compensated with enormous golden parachutes, the popular exit “bonus”  for having failed. At worst they can actually incentivize ‘selfish’ behaviour which may be contrary to the long term best interests of the organisation or its stakeholders. Generally designed to reward quarterly performance it actually removes the incentive to perform well in the long term, thereby having a decidedly negative impact on shareholders.

In the hunt for the best and brightest, many organisations have convinced themselves that high bonuses are necessary to attract the best talent, despite the fact that contemporary research does not necessarily support this view.

While we are not advocating the removal of bonuses, indeed this would be extremely difficult given how they appear to have permeated the executive mindset, nevertheless there are a number of ways suggested to improve their effectiveness:

  1. Bonuses are only effective in incentivizing excellence for individuals who have direct control over their own performance – ie: external factors should be limited.
  2. Bonuses should always be discretionary; a culture of automatic bonuses negates their effectiveness. An ‘automatic bonus’ is a camouflaged additional salary or fixed compensation, not an incentive!
  3. Bonuses should be associated with long term collaborative behaviour and thinking – which is much more in the organisation’s interests rather than short term individualism. One way to ensure that is to award bonuses with the stipulation that they be used to purchase company shares. That way the executives interests are better aligned with the shareholders.
  4. The allocation system should be reflective of differences between employees in terms of their performance.  Differences in skills and abilities should be reflected in performance outcomes. If the organisation is not prepared to do this it should not pay bonuses.
  5. A bonus system must be both objective and subjective. It should use an objective criteria to measure outcomes and performance and it should do so on the basis of both short term and long term performance to ensure the future health of the company as well. It should also be a subjective system which looks at how the outcomes were achieved. This will ensure that the way people achieve results will not be ignored, ensuring unethical behaviour is not motivated.
  6. Finally and most importantly, but surprisingly often least recognized, is the importance of the bonus system being clear, transparent and understood by all.

Madison MacArthur introduces our new IRC alliance partner in Nigeria

Leading Edge Consulting based in Lagos, Nigeria, joins IRC Global Executive Search Partners. This marks another important step in our ability to serve our clients globally.

May 2015

“Nigeria brings our global alliance to 79 offices cementing IRC’s position in top five executive search firms globally. We’re pleased that we can offer our clients first class executive search services in one of the most important economies on the African continent. Besides giving us a stronger footprint in Africa the Nigerian office is bringing deep sector expertise in a range of industries, including Financial Services, Industrial, Professional Services, FMCG and Energy,” says Sylvia MacArthur, past President of the Board of IRC Global Executive Search Partners and Principal of the IRC partner office in Canada.

UntitledDr Ije Jidenma, Managing Director & CEO of Leading Edge Consulting, adds on this: “Nigeria is the largest economy in Africa with the population of 170 million. Considering continued growth and diversification in areas such as oil production and agriculture, there is a vast potential for cross border talent search. Our firm also recognizes increasing cross border activities particularly across West Africa, East Africa and other parts of the world where Nigerian companies increasingly have footprints. All these developments have immense potential expanding the cross border executive search requirements.

Becoming a member firm with shared purpose and values is something we greatly cherish as an opportunity not only to uphold the tenets in professional practice but also a veritable platform to contribute to thought leadership in this vital area. Being globally connected and locally committed at the cutting edge brings unquantifiable value to our clients and to the environment from which we operate.”

About IRC Nigeria – Leading Edge Consulting

IRC Nigeria is one of Nigeria’s leading Executive Search and Management Consultancy firms based in Lagos. With a PhD in Psychology with specialization in Psychometrics and more than 30 years of working experience in HR & Management in corporations such as PwC and Merchant Bank of Africa, Ije Jidenma has been leading her firm since 2000. With 2 offices in Lagos, IRC Nigeria serves clients in private and public sectors across all industries as well as international NGOs and multilateral organizations. Its retained executive search and selection service has remained its flagship offering due to its in depth and exhaustive assessment and selection methodology. Leading Edge pioneered the Training and Certification of HR Practitioners in Occupational Testing together with The Psychological Corporation United Kingdom in the late nineties and has remained a firm of choice via referrals for top-level recruitment.

About IRC Global Executive Search Partners

IRC Global Executive Search Partners is a global professional alliance of executive search firms, united in their commitment to provide the highest possible standards in management recruitment services. With a growing roster of leading executive search firms across Europe, Middle East, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australia, IRC Global Executive Search Partners has more than 300 accomplished executive search professionals in 79 offices across 6 continents. Our clients range from large multinationals to middle market companies, and we have a track record of more than 30,000 completed assignments for 2,000+ clients in almost every conceivable industry segment and function. Ranked among the world’s 5 largest retained search firms, IRC Global Executive Search Partners is an alliance that embodies the best of both worlds – Globally Connected and Locally Committed.

Canada Contact Information:

Sylvia MacArthur

Madison MacArthur